## TABLES IN EXCEL

### The first stage of creating a table within Sheets is having data to handle. Below shows a data set (an Ohm's Law investigation) to be inputted into Sheets:- ### When Sheets is first opened, the following spreadsheet is generated:- ### In order to input the data, simply click one of the boxes (known as cells) within the spreadsheet and type. The data in each cell can be edited using the controls at the top of the screen, just like a Word document. Cells can be widened to fit larger amounts of text simply by "double clicking" the line between the cell title letters in the top bar:- ### In order to create table lines, highlight the cells to be given borders then click on the border icon in the toolbar (circled in red below) and select the required borders :- ### Once border lines have been added, the table is complete :- ## BASIC CALCULATIONS WITHIN Sheets

### The first stage of performing a calculation is to first extend the table to contain any new columns required for the calculation(in this case the conversion of mA to Amperes and then calculation of Resistance):- ### To perform a calculation, select the cell required and press the "=" key. An equation can then be simply types into the cell, and on pressing "enter" the calculation will be complete. If the calculation requires content from another cell, simply click that cell at the appropriate point in the calculation (as shown below) . This is very useful as if the content in the targeted cell changes, then the calculation automatically updates to give the new required answer:- ### By clicking and dragging the box at the bottom right of the cell (circled again in red), the calculation can be copied down to each row. The system will automatically change the selected cell contained within to the correct row (C3 to D3 to E3 etc.) :- ### A similar calculation can be performed to give the Resistance column:- ### To calculate the average Resistance value, a SUM calculation can be performed. This is performed by typing "=SUM" into the required cell then "clicking and dragging" to highlight the required data. Through the use of brackets, this SUM calculation can be divided by the number of readings (in this case 6) to calculate the average value:- ### The resultant value for the Resistance calculated using the above method has too many significant figures. This can be corrected by highlighting the required cells and then clicking the "decrease decimal places" button (circled in red), setting the number of decimal points to the required value (in this case 0):- ### The final result of this processing is shown below:- ## BASIC CHARTS/GRAPHS WITHIN Sheets

### The first stage in creating a graph is to first identify and highlight the data sets to be used (in this case the Voltage and Current columns). As we do not require the mA column, in order to highlight only the required data, simply "click and drag" down the first column, press and hold "ctrl" then select the second required column :- ### Once the required data has been highlighted the type of chart or graph can be selected. To do this, click on the "Insert" tab in the toolbar, then select "Chart" from the dropdown menu:- ### For almost all graph work within Physics, select the Scatter graph, as shown below :- ### Next, click the three dots on the top right of the graph and select "move to own sheet". This opens your graph as a new page at the bottom of the spreadsheet:- ### The graph will now be much easier to edit on its own tab, as shown below:- ### The graph in this form is not complete, several aspects of editing is required, firstly the addition of a "line of best fit". In order to add a line of best fit, simply click the "edit the chart" button, as shown below:- ### Clicking the "edit the chart" button opens the menu shown below. To add a "line of best fit", click "customise", then "series", then tick the "Trend line" box. ### The graph will now show a linear line of best fit, as shown below:- ### The next stage of editing will be the data points themselves. In Physics, circular data points must not be used. The correct data point will be a cross, as the centre of the cross shows the exact position of the data point. They should be small, but of a size that ensures they are visible through the trendline, and finally they must show data labels. In order to edit the data points, change the "point shape" option to "X mark":- ### Once the point size, shape and colour have been edited, the graph will appear as shown below:- ### The next stage of editing is to add Major and Minor Gridlines, Axis Titles and Data Labels to the graph. This is again done by using the appropriate sections of the "customise" menu on the right:- ### Once this has been completed the graph is complete and will appear in its final form as shown below:- 